# Universal Differential Equations for Neural Feedback Control

You can also mix a known differential equation and a neural differential equation, so that the parameters and the neural network are estimated simultaneously!

We will assume that we know the dynamics of the second equation (linear dynamics), and our goal is to find a neural network that is dependent on the current state of the dynamical system that will control the second equation to stay close to 1.

```
using DiffEqFlux, Flux, Optim, OrdinaryDiffEq, Plots
u0 = 1.1f0
tspan = (0.0f0, 25.0f0)
tsteps = 0.0f0:1.0:25.0f0
model_univ = FastChain(FastDense(2, 16, tanh),
FastDense(16, 16, tanh),
FastDense(16, 1))
# The model weights are destructured into a vector of parameters
p_model = initial_params(model_univ)
n_weights = length(p_model)
# Parameters of the second equation (linear dynamics)
p_system = Float32[0.5, -0.5]
p_all = [p_model; p_system]
θ = Float32[u0; p_all]
function dudt_univ!(du, u, p, t)
# Destructure the parameters
model_weights = p[1:n_weights]
α = p[end - 1]
β = p[end]
# The neural network outputs a control taken by the system
# The system then produces an output
model_control, system_output = u
# Dynamics of the control and system
dmodel_control = model_univ(u, model_weights)[1]
dsystem_output = α*system_output + β*model_control
# Update in place
du[1] = dmodel_control
du[2] = dsystem_output
end
prob_univ = ODEProblem(dudt_univ!, [0f0, u0], tspan, p_all)
sol_univ = solve(prob_univ, Tsit5(),abstol = 1e-8, reltol = 1e-6)
function predict_univ(θ)
return Array(solve(prob_univ, Tsit5(), u0=[0f0, θ[1]], p=θ[2:end],
saveat = tsteps))
end
loss_univ(θ) = sum(abs2, predict_univ(θ)[2,:] .- 1)
l = loss_univ(θ)
```

```
list_plots = []
iter = 0
callback = function (θ, l)
global list_plots, iter
if iter == 0
list_plots = []
end
iter += 1
println(l)
plt = plot(predict_univ(θ)', ylim = (0, 6))
push!(list_plots, plt)
display(plt)
return false
end
```

```
result_univ = DiffEqFlux.sciml_train(loss_univ, θ,
BFGS(initial_stepnorm = 0.01),
cb = callback,
allow_f_increases = false)
```

```
* Status: success
* Candidate solution
Minimizer: [1.00e+00, 4.33e-02, 3.72e-01, ...]
Minimum: 6.572520e-13
* Found with
Algorithm: BFGS
Initial Point: [1.10e+00, 4.18e-02, 3.64e-01, ...]
* Convergence measures
|x - x'| = 0.00e+00 ≤ 0.0e+00
|x - x'|/|x'| = 0.00e+00 ≤ 0.0e+00
|f(x) - f(x')| = 0.00e+00 ≤ 0.0e+00
|f(x) - f(x')|/|f(x')| = 0.00e+00 ≤ 0.0e+00
|g(x)| = 5.45e-06 ≰ 1.0e-08
* Work counters
Seconds run: 8 (vs limit Inf)
Iterations: 23
f(x) calls: 172
∇f(x) calls: 172
```

Notice that in just 23 iterations or 8 seconds we get to a minimum of `7e-13`

, successfully solving the nonlinear optimal control problem.