DiffEqFlux.jl is not just for neural ordinary differential equations. DiffEqFlux.jl is for universal differential equations, where these can include delays, physical constraints, stochasticity, events, and all other kinds of interesting behavior that shows up in scientific simulations. Neural networks can be all or part of the model. They can be around the differential equation, in the cost function, or inside of the differential equation. Neural networks representing unknown portions of the model or functions can go anywhere you have uncertainty in the form of the scientific simulator. For an overview of the topic with applications, consult the paper Universal Differential Equations for Scientific Machine Learning

As such, it is the first package to support and demonstrate:

  • Stiff universal ordinary differential equations (universal ODEs)
  • Universal stochastic differential equations (universal SDEs)
  • Universal delay differential equations (universal DDEs)
  • Universal partial differential equations (universal PDEs)
  • Universal jump stochastic differential equations (universal jump diffusions)
  • Hybrid universal differential equations (universal DEs with event handling)

with high order, adaptive, implicit, GPU-accelerated, Newton-Krylov, etc. methods. For examples, please refer to the release blog post (which we try to keep updated for changes to the libraries). Additional demonstrations, like neural PDEs and neural jump SDEs, can be found at this blog post (among many others!).

Do not limit yourself to the current neuralization. With this package, you can explore various ways to integrate the two methodologies:

  • Neural networks can be defined where the “activations” are nonlinear functions described by differential equations
  • Neural networks can be defined where some layers are ODE solves
  • ODEs can be defined where some terms are neural networks
  • Cost functions on ODEs can define neural networks


The basics are all provided by the DifferentialEquations.jl package. Specifically, the solve function is automatically compatible with AD systems like Zygote.jl and thus there is no machinery that is necessary to use DifferentialEquations.jl package. For example, the following computes the solution to an ODE and computes the gradient of a loss function (the sum of the ODE's output at each timepoint with dt=0.1) via the adjoint method:

using DiffEqSensitivity, OrdinaryDiffEq, Zygote

function fiip(du,u,p,t)
  du[1] = dx = p[1]*u[1] - p[2]*u[1]*u[2]
  du[2] = dy = -p[3]*u[2] + p[4]*u[1]*u[2]
p = [1.5,1.0,3.0,1.0]; u0 = [1.0;1.0]
prob = ODEProblem(fiip,u0,(0.0,10.0),p)
sol = solve(prob,Tsit5())
loss(u0,p) = sum(solve(prob,Tsit5(),u0=u0,p=p,saveat=0.1))
du01,dp1 = Zygote.gradient(loss,u0,p)

Thus, what DiffEqFlux.jl provides is:

  • A bunch of tutorials, documentation, and test cases for this combination with neural network libraries and GPUs
  • Pre-built layer functions for common use cases, like neural ODEs
  • Specialized layer functions (FastDense) to improve neural differential equation training performance
  • A specialized optimization function sciml_train with a training loop that allows non-machine learning libraries to be easily utilized


If you use DiffEqFlux.jl or are influenced by its ideas, please cite:

  title={Universal differential equations for scientific machine learning},
  author={Rackauckas, Christopher and Ma, Yingbo and Martensen, Julius and Warner, Collin and Zubov, Kirill and Supekar, Rohit and Skinner, Dominic and Ramadhan, Ali},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2001.04385},